1. Who, what, where, when...?
- Bosniaks are people live, mostly, in Bosnia. They belong to southern Slavic peoples, speak Bosnian language, which belong to Slavic group of languages. Bosniaks are the inhabitants of Bosnia for centuries, almost for thousand years.
Unlike the Serbs and Croats, who have given the name to their lands by the name of people (so Serbia got name by Serbs, and Croatia by Croats), Bosniaks have got the name by the name of land – Bosnia. Bosnia is Illyrian word, Illyrians took that name from river Bosnia.
2. Short history of Bosnia that should help to understand...
-History of Bosnia is usually divided into a few periods. Main periods are:
Illyrian period : Territory of present Bosnia is settled in Neolithic age. In Bronze age, Illyrians came. There were many Illyrian tribes lived in various regions of present Bosnia. In 4th and 3rd century BC Celts came and conflicted with some Illyrian tribes. They have been also mixing with each other. Illyrians were also in conflict with Roman Empire. There were some battles between Romans ans Illyrians, but in first decade of New era, all Illyrian provinces are conquered by Roman Empire. After Illyiran comes Roman period : Romans controlled these lands for few centuries. They have built up some cities that today are in Bosnia. After dividing Roman Empire into two Empires (Western and Eastern), provinces Dalmatia and Panonia were inside Western Roman Empire. In 5th century AD Huns and Goths came and took that provinces. Later, Goths are being defeated by Eastern Roman Empire in Gothic war in 6th century, and since then, Bosnia was part of Byzantine Empire. In 6th century begins the arrival of Slavs and then started Slavic period: Slavic tribes were so powerful that they were slaughtering thousands of inhabitants (7000 in two days in Drač). They killed a lot of population, and some parts of old population is asimilated into Slavs. Slavs also imposed their language as most dominating language in former Roman provinces. In this period, Bosnia is mentioned for the first time in Byzantine emperor Konstantin Porfirogenet's book „De administrando Imperio“, in 10th century.
In 9th century, tribal society in Bosnia started to dismiss, and first Bosnian nobility started to appear. Among them, first known ruler of Bosnia, who had tittle of ban (ruler of banate) was ban Borić (1154-1165). During his rulership, there was war between Byzantine Empire and Hungarian Kingdom, and ban Borić was on Hungarian side. Later, Borić is defeated by Byzantines. After him, there came ban Kulin in 1180 AD as byzantine vassal, and after death of Byzantine emperor Manuel I Komnen, there was no Byzantine appearence in Bosnia, so free rulership of ban Kulin started. During his rulership, the famous „Charter of Kulin ban“ is written. That is the first document where Bosnia appears as free independent country. It is written on August 29, 1189 AD. Today, original is in Russia, and they don't want to get it back to Bosnia because, as they say, „it is the second oldest Slavic document, and due to that, it is important for all Slavs too.“
There were also many rulers of banate of Bosnia, until 1377 AD when Tvrtko I Kotromanić, in Mile near Visoko, is crowned as a king of Bosnia. Since then, there was Kingdom of Bosnia that, under Tvrtko I Kotromanić, was the strongest Balkan country in that age. After his death, there were a few kings, until 1463 AD when Bosnia is conquered by Ottoman empire.
Then starts the Ottoman period : During Ottoman period, many things started to change. They bringed new customs, traditions, language, script, religion...Together with Ottomans, Islam came, and part of old Bosniaks accepted it. Ottomans were ruling over Bosnia for 415 years, until 1878 AD and Berlin's congress. On that congress, Austro-Hungarian monarchy got the right to annex Bosnia.
Austro-Ungarn period : Although AU got the right in 1878 AD, Bosnia is annexed in 1908 AD. In that period, industralization and modernization of country is started, and that lasted until 1918 AD. With an end of WW I, ended the AU existence, and its rulership over Bosnia too.
Yugoslav period : First country of southern Slavs was Country of Slovenians, Croats and Serbs (Država SHS) that existed very short, and converted to Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians ( Kraljevina SHS). Bosnia was included in that countries also. Later, it is renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia ( Kraljevina Jugoslavija). In 1941 AD Kingdom of Yugoslavia became ally of German Third Reich, but after changing the government and getting communists at the power, Yugoslavia became the enemy of Germany, and is attacked on April 6, 1941. After German conquerin of Yugoslavia, appeared Independent state of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), also fascist state that was ally of Germany and Italy. Bosnia became the part of it. To stop and prevent chetniks' slagughterings of Bosniaks in eastern parts of Bosnia, there is formed first non-German SS division – 13th SS mountain division Handžar. After the war is over, NDH disappeared, and new Yugoslavia appeared – Socialst Federative Republic of Yugoslavia (Socijalistička federativna republika Jugoslavija, SFRJ). That was communist state that included Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia. Bosniaks in that period „didn't exist“ officially. SFRJ officially consisted of 5 nations and 6 republics. Bosniaks are considered as Muslims only. Bosnian language also didn't exist officially. Those Muslims were speaking Serbo-croatian or Croato-Serbian language. Name Bosniak is got back in early '90s.
Modern Bosnia : After 529 years, Bosnia got independence, after Referendum for independence on March 1, 1992 AD. Few days later, war started. It is topic for itself and requires a lot of space and time. I will notice only few infos : started by Serbian attack and blockade of Sarajevo on April 6, 1992, finished on December 14, 1995. During war, Serbs commited biggest crime in Europe after WW 2 – Genocide in Srebrenica (more than 8000 killed). Capital of Bosnia, Sarajevo, was under siege for three years, and during that more than 11000 humans are killed, including children. Officially : 93 837 humans are killed in total. 63 687 Bosniaks (67,9% - 30 514 civilians, 30 173 soldiers); 24 216 Serbs (25,8% - 1 973 civilians, 21 399 soldiers); 5 057 Croats (5,4% - 2 076 civilians, 2 619 soldiers); 877 others, 4000 not identified. War is over in Dayton (USA) with signing the Dayton Agreement on December 14, 1995, although the conference lasted from 1st to 21st November, 1995.
3. Bosniaks and religion
Since early periods, Bosniaks had their own religion – Bosnian church. Bosnian church is dualist learning (Patarene,Bogomil,Manichaesism), believing in two forces, two Gods – Good and Evil, Light and Dark... Believers are called themsleves Dobri Bošnjani or Krstjani. At the top was Did Crkve bosanske (on modern Bosnian Djed Crkve bosanske, on English Grandfather of the Bosnian church). They were building no buildings to pray and worship God, they were doing it under the tree, in nature, in believers' houses etc. They were not admiting the power of Roman catholic church and Pope. Papacy considered Bosnian church as heretic, and Pope Inocent III wanted to call the crusade against Bosnian „heretics“. In the age of Kingdom, after Tvrtko I Kotromanić's death, political influence of foreign power started to raise. On the west Pope and catholicism, on the east Ottoman empire and islam. Bosnian church was not loved by neither west and east, so it was sentenced to disappearance. Bosnian rulers, officially, due to political reasons, started to convert to catholicism and with that tried to get some help from Pope, so they can defend the Kingdom from the Ottomans. Last Bosnian king, Stjepan Tomašević sent the letter to Pope Pio II in 1462 AD. He writes: „If Bosniaks find out that I shall not be alone in war, they will act braver, and also Turks shall not encourage themselves to attack on my lands, because entrances are very tight, and cities at many places are almost unconquerable. Your predecessor Eugenius offered crown to my father and wanted to build up Episcopal (or Bishop, catholic) Churches in Bosnia. Father hesitated feared of attracting the hatred of Turks; he was the new christian and still has not driven out patharens from Kingdom.“
In that age, next to believers of Bosnian church, there were also some catholics, and very little number od orthodox. All of them were Bosniaks. In 1463 AD Bosnian kingdom fell under the Ottomans, King is slaughtered, Queen escaped to Italy, Kingdom disappeared. With arrival of new empire, new customs, language, script,religion and many more came. Bosnian church could not exist anymore, so some of them converted to catholicism, and others converted to islam.Still, they were are Bosniaks, multireligion people. Those who converted to islam had some privilegues, unlike those non-muslims. Well-accepted islam became major religion in Bosnia, but still there were much Bosniaks catholics and some Bosniaks orthodox. Until 19th century and age of
nationalization, they were all Bosniaks. In 19th century started the Serbian plains to convert Bosniaks orthodox to Serbian nation, because od their religion. Also, same thing, later, wanted to do Croatian ideologists – to convert Bosniaks catholics to Croatian nation,again, due to their religion. In favor to that were the situation in Ottoman empire – muslims in Ottoman empire still had privilegues. With that plains, much of the Bosniak nation converted to Croats or Serbs, so Bosniaks remained only muslims. For example, Serbs were saying : we have to do such that result of our work be : when we ask child about his name, he has to say : „I am Serb“.
Today, very,very little percent of Bosniaks are christians.Majority is muslim, with atheists and agnostics.
4.Bosniaks are Serbian muslims?
That is the main theory of Serbian ideologists,and today „nationalists“, chauvinists...Croats claim the same : „Bosniaks are Croatian muslims“. Both are nonsense. Bosniaks are old European people of Illyrian,Celtic,Gothic and Slavic roots. They were Bosniaks before converting to islam, and remained Bosniaks! There is no people in Europe that did not change its religion. Many European people were pagans, and with arrival of christianity, changed their paganism with new religion – christianity. Same thing happened with Bosniaks, but only later, with arrival of islam. If someone change his religion, that can not change his genes, blood, race...It is only spiritual change of personality, or in this case – nation, not biological change.
Second thing, if our anectors were not muslims, that does not mean that they were Croats or Serbs. They were Bosniaks as we are today, just worshiping another God, as well as Swedes from pre-christianity era are the same as Swedes in christianity. If those Bosniaks were Croats or Serbs, they would called themselves as well,but there are dozens of documents and historical evidences that Bosniaks were Bosniaks and nothing else.
5.Bosniaks are Turks?
Untruth. Due to accepting islam by Bosniaks, they, as I have already mentioned few times, had privilegues more than non-muslims. Due to that, in Bosnia, Bosniaks had their own social categories like Age and Begovi. That were Bosniaks' aristocrates, and they didn't want to mix with Turks, Serbs, even not with Bosniaks who are not from their categories. That was very strong endogamy, one of the strongest in Europe. „Father of Croatian nation writes“, Ante Starčević wrote:
„In Bosnia,there is the haughtiest nobility that Europe has ever had it. That nobility, Mohammedans, have such temperament to rule, that it sacrified its faith to its lordship in 15th century. This spirit still lives inside that nobility : the poorest balija (rude name for muslim of Bosnia) of Bosnia holds up himself as well as first Lord of England. Muslims of Bosnia, except some individual immigrants, are not of turkish origins; they are true noblemen, they are the oldest and clearest nobility of Europe, among them rare are those that many European dinasties are not to young to, celebrated on sword, just if they got chance, they will celebrate at any part of knowledge and skill.“
Pro-Croatian historian, arcaeologist dr. Ćiro Truhelka revelas „The Origin of Bosnian Muslims“ in 1934. There he writes:
„It remains to us that we take a look on antropoligical characteristics of Bosnian muslims, with few words. They are people of high growth (by height, tall...) and wide chest, and, side by side with Scandinavians, by transverse height of their stature, standing in first rows in Europe.“ ___________________________________________________________________
„Endogamy of Bosnian muslims was so strictly hard, that I in my time knew dozen of Beg's family (Turkish word, „begovska porodica“ /beg's family/ something like aristocrats), who married only among themselves, and in their harem they would not brought girls from families outside of this round, even if they are from the best houses. From these reasons, mixed marriages between Ottomans and Bosnian muslims were extremely rare and with no visual impact on the design of the race.“ ___________________________________________________________________
„Endogamy and harems in Bosnia were the most succesful protection for preserving the racial element, and I think, I can say, that there are not many ethincal groups in Europe that preserved themselves from foreign hint as Bosnian muslim did (Those ethnic groups are very rare, more correct translation).“ ___________________________________________________________________
„It is known that between Bosnian muslims and Ottoman there was always some antagonism, and that Bosniaks were wary of it, that they marry their daughters for, so called Turkuše (rude way to call Turks, now sometimes used to describe domestic traitors who loves Turks), and that antagonism often took dangerous political form, and that was the reason for rebellion...“
„In their ethnogenesis bosnian Slavs, later Bosniaks, as the central Southern Slavic folk, have mixed with other peoples very little (rare), unlike other surrounding Southern Slavs, whose ethnogenesis (i.e. of other S.Slavs) have much non-slavic elements – at the east of Greeks, Albanians, Cincars, Romanians and other, and at the west Germans, Italians, Hungarians, Czechs etc. Bosniaks mixed very rare even with muslims of non-slavic origins, regardless of the strong spiritual connection with islamic Orient. Less number of Turks and other Orientals, and few more Arnauts, who were moving in (Bosnia) due to service or job, were merging with domestic muslim world very quickly. Already Ćiro Truhelka noticed that Bosniaks are the oldest „and the purest Slavs in Bosnia“, and later that is confirmed by Milenko S. Filipović (catholic), Spiro Kulišić (catholic) and Muhamed Hadžijahić (muslim).“
6. USA helped Bosnia in war during '90s?
Technically, yes – whole war, all sides, are helped and directed by foreign powers. But, how that help looked like? In weapons – no. In military acces – no. Money – no. Men – no. Actually, when war in Croatia started, UN Security Council on September 25, 1991, made the „Resoulution 713“ and decided to set embargo on import of weapons and military equipment in Yugoslavia. That embargo lasted almost all-war-long. Yugoslav National Army, in that period 4th powerfull army in the world, had very much weapons, and took almost everything for itself. All of that was at Serbian fingertips. Embargo on import of weapons meant that Croatian and Bosnian Army had to arm on their own. In early months of war in Bosnia, Bosnian side had almost nothing for defence, except Police squads and similar, comparing to YNA, it was knife against sword.
Bosnian government demanded from UN to recall that decision about embargo, so Bosniaks can defend themselves – even they knew about Bosniaks' victims – they rejected to recall it. So, Serbs had all of weapons of YNA, Bosniaks and Croats got nothing of weapons from YNA, and also there was embargo on importing weapons. Adjudicate on you own, and realize whom is helped there by International Community.
Second thing, Serbian forces had help from Romanian, Greek, Russian, Ukranians volunteers. Many of them are killed at fronlines, today there is even a monument to killed Russians during war. It is in Višegrad, eastern Bosnia.
On the other hand, Bosnian forces had not something like this, except Mujahedin's orders from Sandžak (region in Serbia), but they were also Bosniaks. They were not members of Army of RBiH. They commited some crimes against Serbian soldiers. So, again, who had the help from outside? See the facts and adjudicate on your own.
Next, when Army of RBiH started to free the cities from Serbian forces, they were in panic. Most of cities, taken and holded by Serbs since the early monts of war, fell under the Bosnian side. Since then, Bosnian army was constantly advancing, until they arrived in front of Banja Luka. Then, there was kilometers-long column of Serbs leaving Banja Luka (knowing that Banja Luka should fell to Bosnian side again). When Serbian leaders saw that there was no chance to stop the Army or RBiH, they searched help. Leaders of Bosnian Serbs warned Milošević that, if someone don't stop offensive of Bosnian side, as they said, „total breakdown of Republic of Srpska can be expected“. In that period, everything started to happen. Still, the real truth is not revealed. To avoid subjective writing, I will skip it. One question is most important : Army or RBiH were in constant advancement, and when they and Croatian army were near Banja Luka, why they stopped? Or better question is : by who they are stopped? There is story about American threats that they will take-off their Air Froces and start bombing Bosnian positions if Alija Izetbegović (i.e. President of RBiH) don't stop the offensive. However, unlogically, Bosnian offensive stopped. Again, whom is helped by foreign power? One truth is 100% true – foreign influence was too high. Honestly, I have to say that NATO forces, in one period, were helping the Bosnian and Croatian army, after Serbs, due to their crimes, lost the support from International Community.
Today, Official Belgrade and Zagreb support the complete Bosnia and Herzegovina, and USA are guaranteers of Daytong Agreement that keeps the BiH complete, as one sovereign country with two entities (Federation of BiH and Republic of Srpska – that can not be independent countries) with three constitutive same-rights people of Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. Only those who want to separate from BiH are Croats and Serbs living in BiH.
7. Some historical documents and evidences of existing of Bosnia and Bosniaks as a people...
- Charter of Ban Kulin (written on August 29, 1189., the oldest written document among southern Slavic countries. Original is in Russia today. Ban Kulin wrote it to prince of Dubrovnik (then city-state, today city in Croatia) named Krvaš, and ensured trade rights for all citizens of Dubrovnik. The charter represents that Banate of Bosnia in that age was independent)
„I, the bosnian ban Kulin swear to you, prince Krvaš and to all citizens of Dubrovnik, that I will be your true friend, from now and forever, and keep peace with you and true faith as long as I am alive.
All citizens of Dubrovnik that walk over my teritory, while trading, can go everywhere, I will keep them with true faith and true heart, with no damage for them, except if someone, by his own will, give me a gift, and from my men not to be violence, and as long as they are at me, I will give them every advice and help as much as I could, with no bad intentions. May God help me, and this holly gospel.“
- Friar Antun Knežević (1834-1889; catholic Friar, catholic, but Bosniak, fighter for Bosniakdom, against croatization of bosnian catholics, and serbization of bosnian orthodox)
„May our neighbours are anger on us for we are honourable and proud of our old name, language and customs, and for we don't want to hug their name for identifying of nationality and language. But, as the thins look, we will ask our friends who use a pen and press: why are you arguing about us, when you know very well that Bosniak from an old ages habituated to be proud of his language, and to call himself by his own name, and to faithfully keeps the tradition and memories of his grandfathers. Glorious history of our dear motherland remember us on those ages when our domestic vlastela (something like aristocrats, i think) in every chance, clearly and openly, said about their nationality, calling themselves by proud and heroic name : Bosniak. We watch at many documents of domestic saviors from past centuries, where one always mention our real folk's name : Bosniak, and that are the reasons for we ourselves, as their thankful descendents call ourselves by glorious name : Bosniak. We can not and we must not depart of it, we will keep our name faithfully and always. We are proud that our language, and from our fatherland, is taken as the base of literary language of our neighbours Serbs and Croats. Famous linguists Vuk Karadžić, Dančić, Ljudevit Gaj moved our beautiful language to literacy of both mentioned people,so they called him as they wanted: first as Serbian, and other as Croatian, and no mention about us. We,for sure, have right to be proud of they are using our language in literacy, and at least everyone will admit it to us. But, we don't understand, why the name, that they gave it by their own will, and without our knowledge, and that name they want to infiltrate into our people, and even they don't allow us to call our own language in our own house by the name of our people. It is similar to, when someone else by his own will give name to our own child. Such an act and demand we do not agree. But respect and honor to both our friends, Serb and Croat. We don't hate their nationality, we don't look on them with „evil“ eye, we will never say that we are not of Slavic tribe, but opposite, to prove everyone, that we Bosniaks are on the first level of glorious race. But always, we remain Bosniaks, as our forefathers were and nothing else. So, may our brothers look into themselves, those who so much centuries live in Bosnia, and now want to be Serbs or Croats.“
- Ivan Martinčić (Croat, or Serb...don't know)
„Demand that, for example,Bulgarina,Bosniak,Arbanas etc call himself as Turk just becase their countries are connected with Turkish empire, is impossible, because those lands have some kind of relation, dont know to translate, it is old language used word, and that is why Bulgarian as Bosniak also will never consider Turkey as their fatherland“
-Darko Tanasković (Serbian historian, well known)
„... fact is in attitude that in old historical country Bosnia, older than Serbia and Croatia, as her indigenous population, with continious ethinc, cultural, psyhicaly, and statehood continuity, since early Middle Ages until now, live Bosniaks and that is their only acceptable people's and national name“
- Matica Srpska, 1825 AD (Mother Serbian, some kind of magazine or something)
„Bosniaks live between Drina,Vrbas,Sava (all rivers), Dalmatia (today in Croatia, region) and Hem (region in Bosnia,today called Herzegovina) with number of 450 000, they confess either islam, or rome-catholic or orthodox“
The same is written in Danica (croatian version of those Serbian above) 10 years later, just changed „they confess.....“ with : „...number 450 000 dividing on islamic, that means turkish, and on roman and greek religion law“
-Nada Klaić (Croatian historian, from book „The history of medieval Bosnia,written in 1994. I think)
„Those projections about Serbism of Bosnia value same as Sisić's evidences of Croatism of Bosnia.However, uncritically report of Constantin Porfirogenet about Sklavinia (I dont know what is that,maybe translation is not good) can be used as background for conclusions only for those historians who already don't care about historical truth. It has same value as Duklan's news about ruling by Croatian od Serbian rulers over Bosnia. That are just casual outings of neighbor's rulers that have not, and could not change houndred-year poition of bosnian lands, because they were going,without Croats and Serbs, by their own, from them (Croats and Serbs) so separated path.Emperor's infos for that job can not be relevant, and less valuable is constructio of someone's (dont know whose) archbishop who writes in middle of 12th century“
-Hans Fritz (German, or Austrian, wrote the book „Bosniak“,1931. He was the commandaer or something of one Bosniak regiment in Austrian army)
„Our Bosniaks-I admit it openly, and it chokes me today, I swallow hardly, and throufh my heart goes unspeakable, painful feeling when I somewhere hear our old parade march „Die Bosniaken kommen“...
Then, I am for nothing.. (Mean on bad mood)
I see them in front of me, that magnificent squad, as high as poplar tree, with eyes of falcon (Eagle's eyes, perhaps) and faithful hearts, I hear their sturdy machine's step
that belonged to special characteristics of Bosnian-Herzegovinian regiments of Old monarchy.
Under darkred fez,of open face, merrily on his neck jumping black silk tassel. And these two famous brass buttons, the unusual trousers, glittering gold in the sun.
And when our song „Marched, marched, The First regiment“... the man would not change himself with any king. How doughtly and proud troups that were!
So far, far ago I dressed down soldier's suit and I shall never, never again lead one bosnian squad. I shall never again, with pride glowing eyes, watch „my“ boys and with radiant sword salute them. Never again cute girls shall stand in the street and wave (with hands) to me and my Bosniaks.“
-Fra Jako Baltić (Franciscan monk, when heard for plain for „turkization“ of Bosniaks)
„Why do you trample God's law? God wanted us Bosniaks to be Slavs, not Ottomans“
-Unknown (for me) author..
„The identity Bosniak goes back for many centuries, but sorting anyone of Bosnian christians as Serbs or Croats goes back for barely one century“
-Letter of the last Bosnian king Stjepan Tomašević, sent to Pope Pio II, 1462. AD, one year before Kingdom fell under Turks. In fact, Papacy wanted to call a crusade on Bosnia due to well-spread Bogomils (Patharens,Manicheaists, the dualist church that did not accept the Roman catholicism), or as the Pope say heretics.
„If Bosniaks find out that I shall not be alone in war, they will act braver, and also Turks shall not encourage themselves to attack on my lands, because entrances are very tight, and cities at many places are almost unconquerable. Your predecessor Eugenius offered crown to my father and wanted to build up Episcopal (or Bishop, catholic) Churches in Bosnia. Father hesitated feared of attracting the hatred of Turks; he was the new christian and still has not driven out patharens from Kingdom.“
-The oldest known, documentated, written proof..of mention of word „Bosniak“ is from 1440. AD, when our king Tvrtko II Kotromanić sent the delegation at Budim to congratulate the Polish king Vladislav Varnančik for becoming the king of Hungaria
and Croatia. Then, the leader of bosnian delegation said: „Bosniak have the same great-grandfathers as well as Poles“
- Kinam, 1150 AD
„When he arrived at Sava (river at the north of Bosnia, border between Bosnia and Croatia), from there he turned towards another river named Drina (river on the east, border with Serbia) who raises somewhere and splits Bosnia of Serbia. Bosnia is not subordinated to arhižupan (some kind of religous leader) of Serbia, but people there (in Bosnia) have specific way of life and ruling“
- Conversation between Husein-Kapetan Gradaščević (Leader of Bosniaks' fight for autonomy inside Ottoman empire, One of the greatest heroes to ever borned in Bosnia) and turkish „beglerbeg“ (some kind of turkish tittle)
Turkish beglerbeg:“You raised against Sultan's castle, Husein-kapetan!“
Husein-kapetan:“I did, beglerbeg, because you made „zulum“ (mess) over Bosnia“
TB: „And fez (tarboosh) is problem to you, what is your problem with fez on the head of glorious turkish soldier, Husein-kapetan?“
HK:“No problem if it is on turkish head,but when you force us to put it on our Bosniak head, i have problem, beglerbeg“
TB:“What Bosniaks'?, What Bosnia? There is no more Bosnia, and there will not be Bosniaks, Husein, you dies for country that has never existed, and will not exist!“ /Today, Serbs and Croats claim the same /
HK: „There is Bosnia,beglerbeg,and Bosniaks inside her,they were there before you, and with God's help, they will be there after you“
-Fra Ivan Franjo Jukić (Pseudonim Slavoljub Bošnjak, franciscan monk, fighting for Bosniakdom)
„We Bosniaks, once a proud people, now are barely alive, friends are looking at us only as a snatched head of the Slavic tree and regreting us. It is time to wake up from long indifference, get the cup and and take the wisdom and science, get the books and magazines, see what others have done, and do it as well, to perform our people from historical unknowledge into light of the truth.“ (1848.) ___________________________________________________________________
„In Bosnia exist only one people, and that are Bosniaks.“ (1850.)
„Catholics don't know what means word Croat, and let alone to feel as members of Croatian people.“ (1851.)
-Evlija Čelebija (...about Bosniaks)..
„As well as their language is, they are pure, good and understanable people.“
-Antun Hangi, 1899.
„After the downfall of once glorious Bosnian kingdom in 1463 under the Ottoman rulership, many Bosniaks waived the faith of their fathers and accepted the Mohammed's faith, Islam.“
-Ilija Garašanin, 1844 (Serbian ideologist, author of the „Načertanije“, first plain of „Great Serbia“, written in 1844. There he writes about considering all Southern Slavs as Serbs, and all their lands as Serbian land)
„...People's history of Bosnia, in which must not be omited the glory and the names of some, to Mohammed's faith accepting, Bosniaks.“
„...to get the catholics Bosniaks...“
„If Bosniaks don't accept it, that would lead to dismemberment of Serbs into little provincial principalities.“
-Marko Marulić, 1493.
„The battle with him (or them) is taken by Croats, Bosniaks, Greeks and Latins, Serbs and Poles.)
-Nordisk Familjebok, 1878.
„The bigget part of population in Bosnia is compound of Bosniaks who are either muslims or greeko-catholcis.“
-Pavlo Ostojić (Yugoslav council from WW 1)
„You are Bosniaks, but you have disregarded your pre-Turkish history. If you don't want that history as yours, then Serbs and Croats shall say that it is their.“
First Vocabulary of Bosnian language is written in 1699 named „Poturi-Šahidija“, by Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi. First Serbian vocabulary is written by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić in 1818.
8. Genetic researching
These two genetic researchings are from eupedia.com and Molecular biology and evolution – Oxford journals.
- Eupedia (250-500 samples)
Haplogroups and percentage:
I1 (Pre-Germanic, Nordic) – 2,5% I2+I2a (Central/Southeast Europe) – 50% I2b (Pre-Celto-Germanic) – 0,5% R1a (Balto-Slavi, Germanic, Indo-Iranian) – 13,5% R1b (Italo-Celtic, Germanic; Hittie, Armenian, Tocharian) – 4% (Caucasian, Greco-Anatolian) – 2% GJ2 (Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian, Caucasian) – 6% J1(Caucasian,Mesopotamian,Semitic (Arabic,Jewish)) – 1% E1b1b (North African, Near Eastern,Balkanic) – 14,5% T (Middle Eastern, East African) – 2,5%
- MBE Oxford Journal
** I2a from eupedia is same as I1b from MBE. Until 2007 I2a1b is also known as I1b.
Original article from MBE : http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/10/1964.full